The association between hookah portrayal and sexuality is consistent with prior work demonstrating associations with cigarette smoking and sexuality DuRant et al. Additionally, compared with females, males more frequently posted hookah images and alcohol-related images or references. Although we tried to minimize this limitation by sampling at four different times, our results nevertheless are not from a truly random sample. Even more in-depth, purely qualitative assessments of data such as these would be valuable in the future. Data such as these are also potentially valuable because of their immediate availability. Studies of user-generated content such as this are also inherently limited because we accessed these data at only one point in time. A comparison of cigarette- and hookah-related videos on YouTube.
This is particularly interesting because national studies have determined that males smoke hookahs more frequently; for example, one study of over , college students showed that ever HTS rates were However, collecting additional data on these issues from young people—for example via focus groups or individual interviews—would help to illuminate the role of games and tricks in images which cannot be inferred from content analysis alone. For this reason, it may be particularly valuable for future research in this area to assess some of these questions more directly, for example with individual interviews. The association between hookah portrayal and sexuality is consistent with prior work demonstrating associations with cigarette smoking and sexuality DuRant et al. Hookahs can also be made in complex shapes, such as animals or fruit. Pew Research Center; Whatever the specific reason for this association, it may be valuable to consider including alcohol-related issues when developing interventions targeted at males in particular. Additionally, our use of passive content analysis limited our ability to assess variables which may have been relevant, such as concerns about weight, because we were constrained to the content that individuals chose to post. Journal of Medical Toxicology. This type of naturalistic data can prove to be a rich, valuable supplement to other forms of data collection such as questionnaires. Even more in-depth, purely qualitative assessments of data such as these would be valuable in the future. First, it provided easy access to user-generated images and text, as noted in Table 4. Although we tried to minimize this limitation by sampling at four different times, our results nevertheless are not from a truly random sample. The volume of posts by younger users suggests that the unregulated nature of HTS may be alluring to this age group and even more attractive, given the somewhat anonymous and popular medium of social networking sites such as Tumblr. Our use of Tumblr was valuable for several reasons. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: Social norms and attitudes linked to waterpipe use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. We know from previous research Dalton et al. Additionally, because individuals seeking anonymous information about substance use may tend toward this type of site, it may also be useful to leverage Tumblr to deliver interventions. This finding is despite the fact that Tumblr users are known to be equally divided among females and males DeSilver, However, because of the richness and variety possible for hookahs, they may ultimately be even more interesting as visual material. These initial gleanings may inform preliminary development of interventions aimed at curbing HTS. It is important to note that there are inherent limitations in content analysis because of subjectivity. While we attempted to minimize this concern with a systematic process involving double coding of all data and formal adjudication, different coders may have disagreed with some of our ultimate determinations. Because many traditional social networking sites such as Facebook require identifying information, users may self-censor. A comparison of cigarette- and hookah-related videos on YouTube.
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