Ledger of sale of slaves, Charleston, South Carolina , c. The Americanization of Louisiana gradually resulted in a binary system of race, causing free people of color to lose status as they were grouped with the slaves. People enslaved in the North typically worked as house servants, artisans, laborers and craftsmen, with the greater number in cities. Life expectancy was much higher in the U. In , more than 42 percent of New York City households held slaves, the second-highest proportion of any city in the colonies after Charleston, South Carolina. This theory is clearly illustrated in this volume by the aftermath of September 11, depicting the vulnerability of the U.
Before then long-staple cotton was cultivated primarily on the Sea Islands of Georgia and South Carolina. The great majority of enslaved Africans were transported to sugar colonies in the Caribbean and to Brazil. He was also the father of her mixed-race son, and the couple married after Key was freed. Ideologies of class, ethnicity, gender, nation and sexuality are central concerns as are the growth of the business of filmmaking. Under duress, Johnson freed Casor. Native Americans who were sold to colonists by other Native Americans from rival tribes , or captured by Europeans during village raids, were also defined as slaves. The Handbook of Social Problems is a vital resource for sociologists and graduate students, as well as an excellent addition to any academic library. Ledger of sale of slaves, Charleston, South Carolina , c. They also worked in the artisanal trades on large plantations and in many southern port cities. In Virginia, Elizabeth Key Grinstead , a mixed-race woman, successfully gained her freedom and that of her son in a challenge to her status by making her case as the baptized Christian daughter of the free Englishman Thomas Key. The mixed-race offspring creoles of color from such unions were among those in the intermediate social caste of free people of color. This was a reversal of common law practice in England, which ruled that children of English subjects took the status of the father. Although it authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions, it forbade slave owners to torture them or to separate married couples or to separate young children from their mothers. The South developed an agricultural economy dependent on commodity crops. Casor entered into a seven years' indenture with Parker. The change institutionalized the skewed power relationships between slaveowners and slave women, freed the white men from the legal responsibility to acknowledge or financially support their mixed-race children, and somewhat confined the open scandal of mixed-race children and miscegenation to within the slave quarters. Some of the British colonies attempted to abolish the international slave trade , fearing that the importation of new Africans would be disruptive. In addition, the international and comparative essays in this volume cover other important issues such as the impact of modern technologies on social problems, ecological problems, global inequality, health as a social problem, and much more. Handbook of Social Problems: Its planters rapidly acquired a significantly higher number and proportion of slaves in the population overall, as its commodity crops were labor-intensive. Slavery was then legal in the other twelve English colonies. This theory is clearly illustrated in this volume by the aftermath of September 11, depicting the vulnerability of the U. Backwoods subsistence farmers, the later wave of settlers in the 18th century who settled along the Appalachian Mountains and backcountry, seldom held enslaved people. This resulted in a different pattern of slavery in Louisiana, purchased in , compared to the rest of the United States. People enslaved in the North typically worked as house servants, artisans, laborers and craftsmen, with the greater number in cities.
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