Most of the research has on infra sound has been done with African elephants but its believed that some of the same traits also apply to Asian elephants. It's a very stable unit, and the bonds among females are very strong. Females have reproductive cycles throughout the year. Parade magazine reported that at the Indianapolis zoo, a female elephant named Sophi watched her keepers push a heavy cart across the yard after cleaning up her enclosure. Dominance in bulls has been thought to be different, a temporary measure of who could stay on top of the heap, who could physically overpower the other members of the group and mate with the most females. Mr Douglas-Hamilton's researchers were able to observe the reaction of other elephants to the death of Eleanor, the matriarch of a group called the First Ladies. Females reach menopause around the age of In the wild, year-old female elephants still give birth to calves. Young males leave the group when they are between 12 and 15 years old; the females stay together as long as they live, which can be up to 70 years.
And then there are the sub-populations, which might be 30 families or so. Some of the fights last several hours if the bulls are more evenly matched. He dragged his own trunk on the ground and stamped purposefully forward, lunging at Kevin until the lesser bull was finally able to maneuver behind a concrete bunker we use for ground-level observations. There were false starts, head thrusts from inches away and all manner of insults cast through foot tosses, stiff trunks and arched backs. After he has died, when the body is still warm, other bulls try to lift it, breaking tusks in the processes. To check if it indeed the sounds that attarcted them and not something else, scientists played a tape of an estrous female from a loudspeaker a mile away from two bulls who just arrived at a water hole. These two seemed equally matched, and for a half-hour the fight was a stalemate. The main usage of musth for a bull is to gain dominance over other bulls so that, if he does find a receptive female, he can mate. The matriarch, usually the oldest in the group, makes decisions about where and when to move and rest, on both a daily and seasonal basis. If the new-arriving male is larger than the guarding male, the guarding male is driven off If the two elephants are about the same size and strength they may fight. The battles are often over in a minute after one bull, usually the oldest, has asserted itself as the strongest and most powerful. If a male comes into the herd, he will gauge the reproductive state of the females by sniffing their urine and genitalia. A family unit consists of related females. But just when I thought Greg had won, Kevin dug in. Females and their young form the nucleus of a herd, which is usually led by a senior matriarch. He engages in exaggerated displays of aggressiveness such as curling the trunk across the brow with ears wavingpresumably to facilitate the wafting of a sticky, musthy secretion from temporal glands above the cheek, just behind the eyewhile excreting urine, sometimes to the point of gushing. They support and care for another and communicate information and pass it down from one generation to the next. Feet stamping in a sideways dance, thrusting their jaws out at each other, the two bulls faced each other across the bunker. They make regular visit to the female groups to see of they in estrus. Once, months after an old bull died, another bull fond the site and picked up a tusk and caressed it. Scientists had long wondered why elephants in a herd all raised their ears and stopped in their tracks even though no sound was heard; how herds miles apart from one another could forage an area in an organized fashion; why elephants a mile apart turned at the same time; and how members of a heard who were scattered in direction miles apart could all arrive at a water hole at the same time. This mechanism allows more males to mate, rather than just the don, which makes the population more genetically diverse. Greg certainly appeared to be rounding up the group and leading his bulls to another carefully selected venue. Greg seized the moment. Both African and Asian elephant males experience it. The Economist, July 24, Greg tossed his trunk across the nine-foot divide in what appeared to be frustration.
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