An early group of Jews arrived in , soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Primarily working as merchants and traders, the Jewish community was forced to live a clandestine life, calling themselves "Portugals". After the British took over rule of Jamaica, the Jews decided the best defense against Spain's regaining control was to encourage making the colony a base for Caribbean pirates. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in With the pirates installed in Port Royal , which became the largest city in the Caribbean, the Spanish would be deterred from attacking. Jago de la Vega, around at present-day St. Independence, however widely celebrated in Jamaica, has been questioned in the early 21st century.
Although the UK had outlawed the importation of slaves, some were still smuggled in from Spanish colonies and directly. The majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Independence, however widely celebrated in Jamaica, has been questioned in the early 21st century. By , Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World, also attracting those who had been expelled from Spain and Portugal. Members then restricted to European-Jamaicans claimed that the slaves were content and objected to Parliament's interference in island affairs. After the British took over rule of Jamaica, the Jews decided the best defense against Spain's regaining control was to encourage making the colony a base for Caribbean pirates. Reynolds Jamaica Mines, Ltd. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in The population in was ,, of whom 15, were white, 5, free black; 40, 'coloured' or free people of color mixed race ; and , were slaves. Workers recruited from India began arriving in , Chinese workers in The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated, especially around the area now known as Old Harbour. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, Sevilla , which was established in and abandoned around because it was deemed unhealthy. Jago de la Vega, around at present-day St. One and a half kilometres west of St. The first and third largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa , closed, and there was a significant reduction in production by the second-largest producer, Alcan. Jamaica attained full independence by leaving the federation in Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land. Economic deterioration continued into the mids, exacerbated by a number of factors. The Jamaican Maroons fought the British during the 18th century. Primarily working as merchants and traders, the Jewish community was forced to live a clandestine life, calling themselves "Portugals". It became a staple in island diets. Under treaties of and , the British agreed to stop trying to round them up in exchange for their leaving the colonial settlements alone, but serving if needed for military actions. The name is still used today by modern Maroon descendants, who have certain rights and autonomy at the community of Accompong. After the abolition of the international slave trade in ,  the British began to "import" indentured servants to supplement the labour pool, as many freedmen resisted working on the plantations. Following a series of rebellions on the island and changing attitudes in Great Britain, the British government formally abolished slavery by an act, beginning in , with full emancipation from chattel slavery declared in
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