The islands were leased to several Portuguese officers during their regime. Sexuality education programs should be designed to reach out to these students, as they are also the most likely to attend classes irregularly. Methodology Data The study is based on empirical data gathered from a representative sample of low-income youth attending college in Mumbai. Furthermore, because the honor and dignity of a man and his family are linked to female sexuality, women are expected to postpone intercourse until they marry and then to remain faithful to their husband. Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali in northern Mumbai suggest that the islands were inhabited since the South Asian Stone Age. During , we gathered qualitative information, using focus-group discussions and interviews to gain an overview of students' experiences, including their sexual experiences.
We excluded the family-level socioeconomic variables, which had no significant associations with sexual behavior. The intermediate variables had the greatest effects on sexual behavior, but the results differed for male and female students. In the analysis of factors affecting the odds of any sexual behavior, male students aged 18 or older were more than twice as likely as their younger counterparts to be sexually experienced odds ratio, 2. Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali in northern Mumbai suggest that the islands were inhabited since the South Asian Stone Age. However, this variable may be an indicator of the potential for premarital sex among students in urban India at a time when the influence of modernization becomes more visible. In the following analyses, young women's experience of sexual intercourse has been excluded, because the number reporting this behavior was very small. Individual-level characteristics such as age and personal income had modest effects on students' sexual behavior, and family-level variables had no significant effects. In the absence of adequate knowledge about pregnancy, contraception and STDs, it is difficult to prevent unintended pregnancies and STD infection, but students' knowledge of specific topics differed considerably. Most of the factors that were associated with an elevated likelihood of any sexual activity among male students also had significant effects on young men's odds of having had intercourse. The subsample of third-year students was intended to represent the distribution of males and females in the different academic tracks in the two colleges; however, as a result of high rates of absenteeism, the sample fell short by 29 males from the commerce program and five from the arts program. In general, the socioeconomic variables at the household level did not show any significant relationship with students' sexual behavior Table 2. In bivariate analyses, we used chi-square testing to examine the association between sexual experience and each independent variable. It is also commonly assumed that family and educational institutions exercise greater control over the sexual behavior of unmarried youth in India than in the West. Therefore, the findings can be generalized only to students who attend classes or at least come to college. The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into the state. For young women, the bivariate regression result is consistent with the bivariate cross-tabulation, showing that the odds of sexual experience increase as the level of knowledge rises. Individual-level factors exerted a greater influence on males' sexual behavior than on females' Table 1. Statements such as "Masturbation is unhealthy" and "Women do not enjoy sex as much as men do" were used to construct the scale for attitudes toward sex in general. Results from the qualitative phase of the study and data from similar research reported in the literature indicated that three categories of variables influence students' sexual behavior and thus should be included as independent variables in the analysis: Teachers and college authorities were not involved in administering the questionnaire. The term had been in use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official name change to Mumbai. Similarly, students' level of exposure to erotic materials was classified as low, moderate or high, according to how often they had seen erotic drawings and movies, and had read erotic or pornographic literature. International Family Planning Perspectives, , 25 3: Thus, for young women, the potential consequences of premarital sex, such as pregnancy, desertion by one's future husband, domestic discord and loss of "honor" for self and the family, may deter sexual activity. The main sources of income for students were parents pocket money and earnings from jobs; a few students received scholarships. Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban district , which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra. Adolescents constitute a sizable proportion of women seeking abortions more than one-quarter at some sites , and the typical adolescent abortion seeker is unmarried; additionally, unmarried women tend to delay seeking abortion, often until the second trimester, which could result in serious health problems.
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