We excluded birth cohorts prior to owing to insufficient sample size excluding cases. Here, we test the prediction that, in The Netherlands, taller men and women have experienced higher reproductive success. Something similar may also be true for very young and old ages at menopause, hence we restricted age at menopause to between 30 and Health, education and income were provided at the time of the interview. Results did not differ see the electronic supplementary material, tables S6 and S For those cases where there was a significant interaction, it was never the case that the relationship changed in terms of sign and remained significant i. Environmental differences may not be the whole story, however.
For those cases where there was a significant interaction, it was never the case that the relationship changed in terms of sign and remained significant i. Self-reported health is a valid general assessment of one's health status, covering largely physical and functional aspects of health, but is not connected to any specific illness, and has been shown to predict mortality and morbidity and to have a high test—retest reliability in a number of studies. In what follows, if neither height nor height2 was significant in the analyses, we present the model with both variables. For our analyses, we included only those who reported their income To correct for the secular trend in height over time, we calculated a running average of height 5 year bins across time for each sex, and we did the same for the standard deviation of height. By contrast, the United States has experienced growing levels of social inequality over the last years, despite equivalent if not higher levels of overall wealth compared with The Netherlands [ 2 , 9 , 10 ], and these may be responsible for the much smaller increase in average height. Over the last years, they have grown 20 cm in height: The age at the start of the relationship does not necessarily correspond to the age at the start of an individual's first relationship, nor the first successful reproductive union. Results See table 1 and figure 1 for an overview of the results, and the electronic supplementary material, tables S4—S14 for parameter estimates of all analyses. We excluded birth cohorts prior to owing to insufficient sample size excluding cases. We included fertility data only for those respondents who gave full information on the birth-date and sex of all their children. One possibility, then, is that natural selection acted congruently with these environmentally induced changes to further promote tall stature among the people of the lowlands. We also included only those men and women who were 45 years of age and older as virtually all of these have completed reproduction , which further restricted our sample to the birth year, Although these cases are of interest given that age at menses and menopause are plausibly related to fertility outcomes, we cannot exclude the possibility of reporting errors, and our sample is therefore conservative. Based on this classification, We excluded those cases in which the age at the start of the relationship was reported as being younger than We deduced whether a participant was in a current relationship from the survey question concerning the sex of their partner, i. Thus, natural selection in addition to good environmental conditions may help explain why the Dutch are so tall. Equivalent differences in height are also observed between The Netherlands and other European countries. We do not discuss these interactions further. To assess whether there were any nonlinear patterns with respect to the effects of height on any of the dependent variables, we included a quadratic term for height, while always including a linear term for height, even when this was non-significant. Furthermore, it appears that, in the United States, natural selection is working against environmental factors to actively favour shorter stature. In only four out of 51 analyses was a significant interaction found electronic supplementary material, tables S4—S Across three decades — , height was consistently related to reproductive output number of children born and number of surviving children , favouring taller men and average height women. Very late menses may signal potential problems with ovarian function, which would have a subsequent effect on fertility-related traits. Although men are physically able to reproduce to a very late age, we observed that only 1. In addition, the LifeLines project comprises a number of cross-sectional sub-studies that investigate specific age-related conditions.
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