For individuals with granulosa cell tumours, diffuse growth pattern, increased mitotic figures and cellular atypia correlate with poor prognosis. Monosomy 22 was identified as the sole anomaly in a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumour in the ovary, by both karyotyping and CGH, which may suggest a common pathogenetic mechanism for both tumour types. To find supporting evidence that this was the case in human granulosa cell tumours, It has been investigated whether LOH of the INHA locus at 2qqter was evident in a series of 17 granulosa cell tumours. The role of mutations of WT1 in sex cord-stromal tumours was investigated. The basis for this surgical approach is retrospective studies that show an equivalent cure rate for patients who undergo unilateral or bilateral adnexectomy. They are subclassified in accordance with the WHO as follows: Trans abdominal hysterectomy or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is appropriate for women beyond childbearing age, whereas unilateral oophorectomy is appropriate for younger women.
Thus there appears to be an apparent dichotomy between the human granulosa cell tumour and the mouse models. Altered expression levels of the following genes have also been found in granulosa cell tumours: Prognosis The prognosis of sex-cord-stromal tumours is good, as these tumours usually present when confined to a single ovary, and are responsive to chemotherapy. Trisomy 12 and 14, and monosomy 22 are the characteristic recurrent cytogenetic aberrations in granulosa cell tumours. Surgery alone is currently acceptable treatment for all patients with OSCST except those who have metastatic disease or Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors with poor differentiation or heterologous elements. Sertoli cell tumours contain Sertoli cells in a tubular arrangement. These findings corroborate previous reports of the prevalence of trisomy 12 and 14 and monosomy 22 in granulosa cell tumours. Neither point mutations exons analysed only , nor LOH of TP53 were evident in a series of 17 granulosa cell tumours, suggesting that they have a distinct molecular pathogenesis to that of epithelial ovarian tumours. A study to address whether trisomy 12 was associated with amplification of the KRAS2 oncogene 12p The basis for this surgical approach is retrospective studies that show an equivalent cure rate for patients who undergo unilateral or bilateral adnexectomy. Supernumerary i 1q was present as the sole abnormality. Currently, platinum-based combination chemotherapy is favored for these latter patients, but the activity of such regimens appears only modest. To find supporting evidence that this was the case in human granulosa cell tumours, It has been investigated whether LOH of the INHA locus at 2qqter was evident in a series of 17 granulosa cell tumours. No effective treatment is available for metastatic lipid cell tumours. They are subclassified in accordance with the WHO as follows: The prognosis of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours is governed by the stage and differentiation of the tumour. Meanwhile, most juvenile granulosa tumours develop in individuals under years of age, recur within 3-years and then are rapidly fatal. A role for the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors has also been suggested in granulosa cell tumours. Data for involvement of the mutations in G-alpha I-2 Gia2 gene, in ovarian granulosa cell tumours is contradictory. Cytogenetics Cytogenetics Morphological Trisomy 12 is a recurrent finding, often as the sole anomaly in benign sex cord-stromal tumours including fibromas, fibrothecomas, thecomas, granulosa cell tumours. Monosomy 22 was identified as the sole anomaly in a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumour in the ovary, by both karyotyping and CGH, which may suggest a common pathogenetic mechanism for both tumour types. For patients with metastatic dysgerminoma, chemotherapy, which has the advantage of preserving fertility in the majority of patients, has supplanted radiotherapy as standard treatment. As discussed earlier, sex cord tumours with annular tubules are present at increased frequency in individuals with PJS, which is caused by germline inactivating mutations of the STK11 gene at 19p It was found that over-expression of TP53 was not characteristic of 19 ovarian granulosa cell tumours; whereas other workers found a correlation between expression of mutated TP53 with poor prognosis, which was supported by other findings. For most patients, unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with preservation of the contralateral ovary and the uterus is appropriate. There has been a single case of a Sertoli cell tumour in which cytogenetics was performed.
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